The universe as the third proof for God’s Existence and Unity
Those 55 languages are explained below. However, first we will mention them briefly:
Through the languages of its individual parts and well-ordered compounds, and the poverty and neediness of its living creatures, the universe bears witness to the necessary Existence and Oneness of its All-Powerful and Beginningless Creator. Through the well-ordered conditions or states it undergoes, its amazing and perfect forms, and its specific and ornamented designs, the universe points to His Attributes of Perfection. Through the lofty purposes it serves, the great benefits it produces, the extraordinary variation it displays, and the well-arranged similarities it exhibits, the universe mentions and recites His All-Beautiful Names. Through the languages of the order and excellent measure observed in its wholes and parts, the good arrangement and regularity it manifests, and the firm and faultless artistry discerned in everything, the universe praises Him.
Through mutual assistance among different inanimate objects, solidarity among dissimilar and varying things, the languages of universal wisdom and perfect favoring, of comprehensive mercy, all-encompassing provision, and all-permeating life, the universe interprets the Qur’an’s verses. Through the languages of beauty and making beautiful, the grace manifested everywhere, true love, attraction and being attracted, and nature’s quality as Divine Truth’s shadow, the universe contributes to the brightness of Islam’s light.
Through the languages of acting for certain purposes, changing an entity or being during its lifespan for certain benefits, and transforming for certain instances of wisdom, alternating for certain aims, and ordering and arranging to perfection, the universe interprets the Qur’an’s verses. Through the languages of its being contingent and having a beginning; its needs, poverty, and destitution; its helplessness, death, ignorance, and ephemerality; and its being subject to ever-changing and final destruction to be built again, the universe declares God’s Power.
Through the languages of the acts and forms of its worship, glorification, prayer, and seeking refuge [with Him], and with all its individual parts and compounds, the universe strengthens submission to the Summit of Prophethood, and belief in the Necessarily Existent Being, One and Single. In all such languages and under the command of the Eternal Word and presidency of the Master of All Creatures, primarily including the Messengers, the universe announces: God, there is no god but He, the All-Living, the Self-Subsistent and Sustainer.
The universe manifests the truth of there is no god but God in the following 55 languages:
1. As a whole and with all its parts, the universe displays an evident order and extraordinary concord among its individual parts. This points to the necessary existence of Him Whose Hand of Power holds the universe, and bears witness in the tongue of this universal order that there is no god but God.
2. Everything is so exactly measured and proportioned that it announces that there is no god but God, Who set this measure and made all things in proportions and exactly commensurate with one another.
3. The harmony, arrangement, and regularity displayed show that different hands cannot interfere in it, and announces in the language of this harmony, arrangement, and regularity that there is no god but God.
4. The art and design exhibited point to the fact that the One Who designed and decorated it is also its Owner, and testifies in the language of this art and design that there is no god but God.
5. The perfection of the art displayed by the Pen of Destiny in everything, according to the capacity of each, shows that the Pen is one and announces that there is no god but God.
6. The mutual relationship between all things and faultless artistry displayed in each demonstrate that the One Who inscribed the page of the sky with stars and suns is He Who inscribes the pages of the honeybee and ant with their cells. In the language of all its creatures, the universe bears witness that there is no god but God.
7. We see that even inanimate objects, no matter how far from each other, aid each other for wise purposes. For example, [vaporizing waters fall upon Earth to “revive” it, and] corn and fruits become sustenance for human cells. In the language of this mutual assistance, the universe bears witness that there is no god but God.
8. As between the sun and the planets, which are its “fruits,” there is solidarity among different, distant objects. This solidarity shows that whatever exists is under the command and control of only one being. In the language of this solidarity, the universe testifies that there is no god but God.
9. The resemblance among certain things, such as among the stars, is another language in which the universe proclaims that there is no god but God.
10. The proportion among certain things, such as flowers, demonstrates that whatever exists belongs to the same Owner and is controlled by the same Power. In the language of this proportion, the universe testifies that there is no god but God.
11. Every living thing receives the manifestations of numerous Names.35 Like the seven colors in sunlight, each Name has Its own beauty and imprints. And yet they work to the same effect in each individual thing, even cells. This shows that the One Who has these Names is one and same being: The All-Living Creator of something is also its Shaper, Provider, and Sustainer; the One Who provides something is the Creator of the sources of provision; and its Creator is He Who has dominion over everything. This reality opens a window on the necessary Existence and Unity of the One called by the Names mentioned, and in the language of every living thing the universe testifies that there is no god but God.
12. The connection among and between all things, such as the eyes of a honeybee and an ant, the sun and the solar system, show that both are designed by a single Designer. In the language of this connection, the universe bears witness that there is no god but God.
13. The indispensable relation among the parts of each thing and the things themselves demonstrates that everything is the work of a single Maker. In the language of this relation, the universe testifies that there is no god but God.
14. The “brotherhood” between the gravity affecting an individual thing’s minutest particles and atoms and the general gravity between stars and suns indicates that both are “inscriptions” of one pen, the texture of one weaver, the rays from one “sun.” This shows the necessity of Divine Existence and Unity. In this language, the universe bears witness that there is no god but God.
15. A compound’s minutest particles or atoms, as well as compounds within each other, are placed according to such delicate calculations that, for example, any atom or particle in an eye is interrelated with the eye’s other atoms and with all bodily systems and cells. This demonstrates that the Creator of the eye with all its atoms, the body, and the eye of the world (the sun) and their positioner is the Creator of all compounds. In the language of all these minutest particles and their positions and tasks, the universe bears witness that there is no god but God.
16. A species’ comprehensive disposition and certain species’ wide distribution, such as angels and fish, indicate that the Creator of one living being is the Creator of the species. The pen, which draws the lines of an individual’s face and thus identifies or individualizes that person, has to see all faces at the same time to make each one unique. Otherwise, individualization would be impossible. This requires that the Creator of an individual be the Creator of the family and species. The universe testifies in this language that there is no god but God.
17. Some may say that one being could not have created everything, and so deny the Creator’s Existence and Oneness. Attributing things to nature, themselves, material causes, or to such notions as chance and necessity makes the existence of things impossible.
It is much easier for one creator to create everything than for many creators to create one thing. The interference of many blind hands in creating something only increases blindness. For example, if creating a honeybee were not attributed to the power of a necessarily existent being, everything that exists should have participated in its existence. If creating a minute particle or a hair were attributed to material causes, it would be as difficult as creating a mountain. A commander can organize and direct a military company much easier than its soldiers or multiple commanders can. Everyone judges water sprinkled [on flowers] to be shooting from a sprinkler. All lines ending on a circle’s circumference originate from one center. Such results are obtained easily with a few acts by a single being.
Suppose that water from a sprinkler was attributed to drops of water, or a flower’s existence to soil particles, water molecules, rays of sunlight, the flower’s constituent particles, or to chance and the like. This would require that each particle involved have the attributes of the Necessarily Existent Being, as well as perfect artistry, comprehensive consciousness, all-encompassing knowledge, and absolute will and power. Attributing creativity to these causes means accepting innumerable partners with the Necessarily Existent Being, Who does not admit partnership. Such order and perfect arrangement require that each particle simultaneously be dominant over others and be dominated by them. In sum, attributing the existence of things to nature, chance, material causes, or to themselves requires the suspension of human reason.
On the other hand, suppose that everything is attributed to its true Owner, Whose Existence is absolutely necessary and Who is One and Single. Then like drops of water, each containing and reflecting the sun and shining with its image, each minute particle receives and reflects the rays of the infinite and eternal Power’s manifestation, which includes the infinite and eternal Knowledge and Will. A minute particle that receives such a ray is more effective than the “sun” of material causes. Connection to that Power, even through a minute particle, produces a very great effect, for a transparent particle that receives and reflects that Power’s manifestation possesses Its attributes and thus acquires universality or functions like a universal thing.
Furthermore, Power is an essential Attribute of Divine Being and thus is infinite and without opposite, division, or dilution. Due to essential qualities in existence (namely, transparency and reciprocity, balance and measurement, orderliness, abstraction and obedience), that Power creates the sun with the same ease as it creates the minutest or largest thing, for they are the same in relation to a single ray from It.36 Power’s operation also can be likened to light penetrating through a small hole and illuminating a large area.
Life, being, and light are transparent and permeable, and operate in the inner, immaterial dimension of existence. Thus one can discern Power’s operation under solid, material causes. To reflect the sun in glass, its light only has to shine through a small hole. Grapes grow at the end of a thin, slender stem. A lit candle or lamp illuminates a room. As in these examples, Power operates behind such simple and delicate causes. If Power is not discerned in such effects, then they must be attributed to the glass itself, the slender stem, or to lighting a match.
Those who deny a single Creator or associate partners with Him in creation can find peace only by attributing everything to the One Necessarily Existent Being, through Whose Power all difficulties can be solved, Whose Will is the key to all problems and mysteries, and through Whose remembrance hearts find peace and tranquility. There is no shelter or salvation except by taking refuge in and relying on Him. The Almighty declares: Flee to God (50:3) and: Assuredly in the remembrance of God do hearts find peace and tranquility (13:28). This truth opens a window on the light of Islam, obedience to Prophethood, and belief in the Necessarily Existent Being of Oneness and Unity. In the language of all its parts, the universe testifies that there is no god but God.
18. Apparent material causes, like bread and milk to satisfy hunger, are simple; limited in time, place, and quantity; and subject to disappearance, death, and change. They have no consciousness and will, and most are subject to nominal (not material) “laws” that are perceived only after the effects have been brought about. Compared to their causes, effects are extraordinary and display splendid artistry. For example, a cell’s formation and relations with all others and the body are so complex that it requires much more knowledge, skill, comprehensive will, and power than that found in all members of creation. Therefore, they cannot be explained by the food given or the working of an unconscious and ignorant body.
Look at human memory. How can it be explained? It is like a copy of your life that the Hand of Power reproduces and gives to your hand so that on the Day of Reckoning it may tell what you did during your life, and to convince you of the afterlife. The All-Knowing One arranges things and events in life perfectly, despite their utmost intricacy. Human reflection, reasoning, thinking, and speech cannot be attributed to or explained by some systems and organs and their movements.37 Therefore, these faculties or powers, systems and organs, must be the work of One with infinite Power, Knowledge, and Will. Only a Creator with boundless Power can be the real agent. Material causes and means are only excuses [to allow some space for human agency] and veils [hiding Power’s operation]. Senses, faculties, and qualities are titles given to the “pieces of glass” receiving and reflecting, according to their capacities, Power’s manifestations, including eternal and infinite Knowledge and Will. “Laws” are manifestations of Knowledge, Command, and Will on species, something issuing from the “realm” of Commands and Will. This truth opens another window on the Divine Being’s necessary Existence. In the language of all effects, the universe testifies that there is no god but God.
19. The wonderful works of a universal, perfect art and the utmost care shown in them require a limitless power. Each part of these works also demands this power.
This points to an All-Powerful Creator with unlimited Power. Since It is infinite, It is independent of and does not need partners, for that would limit It. Divinity does not accept limitation, for that would cause It to be contained in time and space, and defective in the capacities and qualities required by a Divine being. Absolute independence and freedom are essential to divinity. Thus It has no partners, for the universe (through its parts, events, and as a whole) displays the stamp of Unity and shows that its ruling agent is One.
Humanity is the most capable part of creation, the most eminent of causes equipped with consciousness and free will. However, our role in our actions is very small. This being the case, what part can inanimate objects have in creating and operating the universe? How can the envelope in which the king’s gift is placed be his partner or helper? This truth opens another window on the Divine Being’s necessary Existence and Unity. In the language of this truth, the universe bears witness that there is no god but God.
20. Although some Divine Names (like All-Knowing) encompass all things, the Divine Names manifested in the universe coordinate the creation, life, and working of all its parts down to the minutest particles. Like sunlight’s seven colors, they work to the same effect.38 This demonstrates that the Being called by those Names is one. In the language of the coordination and solidarity among the Names manifested in it, the universe testifies that there is no god but God.
21. Universal wisdom is apparent in the universe, both as a whole and in its parts. This wisdom, which includes a purpose, consciousness, will, and preference, points to an All-Wise One’s necessary existence, for an act must have a doer and an act or a part of it cannot be the doer.
22. The purposeful and gracious, all-encompassing favor apparent throughout the universe testifies to an All-Munificent Creator’s necessary existence, as a favor cannot bestow itself without a favorer.
23. The extensive mercy encompassing the universe, which contains wisdom, favor, benevolence, munificence, kindness, gratifying, love, and recognition, indicates an All-Merciful, All-Compassionate One’s necessary existence. A quality cannot be the one qualified by it, and Earth and heavens could have been “clothed” only by that All-Merciful One.
24. Satisfying living creatures’ infinitely diverse needs from the universal provision, which contains wisdom, favor, mercy, protection, engagement [to provide them], intention, love, and recognition, points to a Compassionate Provider’s necessary existence.
25. The life and vigor seen throughout the universe contain wisdom, favor, mercy, provision, delicate artistry, elegant design, firmness, and care. They are brought about by the manifestations of a purpose, consciousness, knowledge, and will. This indicates the necessary existence of an All-Powerful, Self-Subsistent, All-Sustaining One, Who gives and takes life. Life is a simple and unified or uniform phenomenon. Contrary to the principle that only a single entity issues from something one and unified [suggesting that everything needs a different origin], something one and unified (like life) issues only from something one and unified or uniform. So, the creator of life is one and indivisible.
These five truths (articles 21-25) indicate that this universe’s Lord is All-Powerful, All-Knowing, All-Wise, All-Munificent, All-Compassionate, All-Merciful, All-Providing, All-Living, Self-Subsistent, and All-Sustaining, One qualified by the attributes of perfection. These five truths open a window onto the light of Islam, together with submission to Prophethood and the light of belief that He is God, One, and Necessarily Existent. In the language of the light composed of these truths, the universe bears witness that there is no god but God.
26. The grace observed throughout the universe, making everything graceful, indicates the necessary existence of the One to Whom grace is essential.
27. The innocent beauty of the universe signifies the necessary existence of the One with absolute beauty.
28. The true love felt by the universe deeply in the heart is a sign of the Truly-Beloved One.
29. The attraction and ecstasy felt by the universe demonstrate most profoundly the center of attraction toward which everything is attracted.
30. What we hear from all perfected people who describe their observations is that creation is a shadow of the Single Being of Unity’s light.
These five truths (articles 26-30) indicate that the universe has a Lord, necessarily existent and qualified by the attributes of Majesty, Beauty, and Perfection. In the language of these five truths, the universe testifies that there is no god but God.
31. Each member of a species, as well as the entire species, is disposed toward specific benefits and purposes. This points to the necessary existence of an All-Wise Disposer or Agent, as an act must have a doer, and an act or a part of it cannot be the doer of itself.
32. Continuous change is observed in plants and animals for certain benefits, which indicates the necessary existence of a Master Who directs them.
33. Continuous, purposeful transformations are observed in plants and animals, both individually and as a species. This points to the necessary existence of a Wise Master.
34. The alternation of day and night for many purposes and benefits is a sign of the necessary existence of an Agent Who does whatever He wills.
35. Ordering must have an orderer, for the thing ordered and the order itself cannot be the doer of this act, which requires consciousness. The universe’s order and arrangement serves to make each thing attain its particular level of perfection, and to make creation attain its final point of perfection. This testifies to the necessary existence of an All-Powerful One, Self-Subsistent and Sustaining. Can a nightingale clothe itself in its elegant, ornamented body? Can Earth weave its richly decorated dress?
These five acts (articles 31-35) of disposing, changing, transforming, alternating, and ordering show that this universe has a Master. They show that He Who controls it is wise, efficient, powerful, self-subsistent and sustaining, One Who does whatever He wills and has attributes of perfection. In the language of these acts, the universe announces that there is no god but God.
36. The universe has a beginning. Whether as a whole or in parts, it came into existence within time. While there were infinite probabilities as to how and what properties it might have, it assumed its present form of perfect order, harmony, and balance. This demonstrates the necessary existence of One with free choice, One Who is All-Knowing, All-Wise, and All-Powerful.
37. Everything is in endless need of sustenance and survival. If it is a conscious living being, it also has spiritual and intellectual needs. Despite everything’s inability to satisfy the most insignificant needs, the needs of everything are met on time and from an unexpected source. This points to the existence of a Sustaining, Providing, Munificent, Merciful, and Compassionate Lord.
38. Everything is in infinite destitution and unable to procure what it needs to survive. However, everything is provided in exact measure with whatever it needs. This indicates the existence of One Compassionate, Munificent, giving freely, All-Loving, and All-Aware [of even the smallest creature’s smallest need].
39. Despite their essential and extreme poverty, things like trees and soil, while appearing utterly dead and dried up in winter, display signs of vigor and power in spring. This indicates the existence of One absolutely Powerful, in relation to Whose Power everything, without exception, is equal.
40. Despite its essential poverty, as displayed by the dried soil that provides for living creatures, the universe shows signs of absolute richness. This points to the existence of One absolutely Rich. The sun and trees are “cells” of His treasures of mercy; water and light are two “streams” originating in His ocean of compassion.
41. Everything is essentially dead. The “lights” of life disseminated by all living creatures demonstrate the existence of One All-Living and Self-Subsistent, One Who gives and takes life.
42. Nothing has consciousness of its own.39 Together with sight and hearing, the encompassing consciousness displayed by conscious living beings shows the existence of One All-Knowing and All-Aware.
43. The continuous, orderly change and decay of everything, especially of living things, point to the existence of One making changes but Who is Himself Permanent and unchanging.
44. We observe that those living, conscious beings who do their duties
of worship get the precisely weighed reward of worship and, attaining higher spiritual ranks, can have some kind of contact with the inhabitants of invisible realms. The imprints of their worship are discerned in their lives, manners, and even on their faces. This indicates the existence of One Who alone deserves worship.
45. The glorification of the universe, whether in words or acts, points to the existence of One Whom whatever is in the heavens and on Earth glorifies (59:24). The testimony of “natural disposition” or actions is irrefutable. Therefore, how can you refute the testimony of all beings, through their dispositions, functions, lives, and physical compositions, to the necessary existence of Him Who is glorified by everything in the heavens and on Earth?
46. The prayers and supplications of living creatures [verbal, physical, or in the language of need and helplessness] are answered and usually yield the desired results.40 This indicates the existence of One Who answers supplications.
47. The afflicted consciously or unconsciously seek refuge in their “unknown” Protector or Creator. This testifies to the existence of the Refuge of the Afflicted and Fearful, the Helper of those who seek help.
48. Those who penetrate the inner reality of existence and base themselves on their intuitions, spiritual experience, and observation, agree that whatever exists in time and space is a shadow of the “Eternal Sun’s” lights, and testifies to Its necessary existence.
49. [Despite their lifelessness, ignorance, and unconsciousness,] inanimate objects, especially atoms and subatomic particles, serve comprehensive, conscious, and universal purposes. Their comprehensive movements or acts, due to the Names’ manifestations on them, originate from Necessary Existence and Unity, not contingency. This bears witness to the necessary existence of a Holy One Who uses all things and is called by the Names manifested on them.
50. [Those who deny the existence of a Divine Being as the sole Creator differ in explaining the origin of existence and life.] The Qur’an says: Flee to God (51:50), Assuredly in the remembrance of God do hearts find peace and tranquility (13:28), and: Unto God all things are brought back (35:4). Those who acknowledge the truth of such Divine proclamations find relief from the difficulties, confusion, and problems of attributing existence to itself, nature, or material causes. Attributing existence to the Creator’s Power easily resolves all difficulties and problems, and allows minds and hearts to find peace. Truly, there is no creative agent other than God.
51. Everything is measured in exact proportions. [Also, as almost everyone has had a glimpse or clue of the future in dreams,] a universal Destiny that predetermined everything prevails in the universe. [This negates chance. Again, all seeds and fully grown plants or trees point to universal Destiny.] Due to this all-inclusive Destiny, everything is perfectly ordered and serves predetermined, evident purposes according to its form, characteristics, and capacities. Consider the human body, with all its lines and fingers. Each one has been built and shaped in accord with its purpose, and so signifies the Destiny that has determined those purposes and structure. According to Destiny’s plan, Power puts into “writing” the meanings established and kept by Knowledge. The Destiny that has preplanned all things, and the Destiny that records the life-histories of all things, indicate the necessary existence of Him, the pen of Whose Destiny and Decree has drawn the outlines of all things.
52. Our comprehensive capacities suggest that we are the fruit of the Tree of Creation, and thus creation’s most perfect part. One aspect of our nature inclines us to non-existence, the world’s dark face. However, our comprehensive capacity for worship implies that we were created for existence (not eternal non-existence), for permanence (not ephemerality), and for the Creator (not the created). Worship connects the beginning to the end in creation. Our natural disposition thus bears witness to the necessary existence of Him Who created the universe and its contents to make Himself known, Who created humanity and jinn so that they should [know and] worship Him.
53. In creation, there are the stations of contingency, multiplication, and of being affected. [Whatever is created is contingent, for its existence is not necessary and absolute; it is not unique or peerless, for it is something to be acted upon.] This requires the position of necessity, oneness, and agency. In other words, there must be One Whose existence is absolutely necessary; Who is unique, peerless, and unitary; and Who is active.
54. We see that each thing continually moves toward its particular point of perfection. When it reaches perfection, it acquires stability and steadiness. Perfection requires stability and constancy. The existence of existence is by perfection, and the perfection of perfection is by constancy. [A thing truly exists only after attaining perfection, and its true perfection lies in its continuing to be perfect.] So, the One Who is necessarily existent is absolutely perfect, and all perfections shared by contingent beings are only shadows of the manifestations of His Perfection’s lights. This testifies that God is the Absolutely Perfect One, both in His Divine Essence and His Attributes and acts.
55. A thing’s interior is much subtler and displays much greater artistry than its exterior. Therefore, its Maker is not distant from it. Also, maintaining the exact balance and proportions between it and other things indicates that its Maker is not contained within it. When we view a thing in respect of itself, its very being, we conclude that its Maker is All-Knowing and All-Wise. When we view it with respect to its relations with other things, we judge that its Maker is All-Hearing and All-Seeing, One Who sees all things from above, fashions them, and regulates their relationships for certain purposes. This truth indicates the necessary existence of the Maker Who is neither contained in the universe nor distant or excluded from it.41 He is the Most Inward of the inward, the Most High of the high. He sees one thing and all things simultaneously.
These truths (articles 36-55) form one composite truth showing that this universe has one Owner, Ruler, and Sustainer Whose existence is absolutely necessary. He is All-Knowing, All-Wise, All-Powerful, All-Merciful, All-Compassionate, All-Providing, All-Munificent, All-Wealthy, All-Living, Self-Subsistent, All-Aware, Ever-Lasting, Permanent, and Deserving of Worship. He does whatever He wills, is glorified by whatever is in the heavens and Earth, and answers those who supplicate. He is the refuge of those in fear, and helps those who ask Him for help. This universe is a shadow of His lights, the manifestation of His Names, and the imprint or work of His acts. Hearts find peace and tranquility in His remembrance, and unto Him are affairs brought back. He created humanity and jinn to [know and] worship Him, and ordered the universe through the laws of His Destiny and Decree. He is necessarily existent and One, Unique, and absolutely perfect in His Essence, Attributes, and acts. He is All-Subtle, All-Aware, All-Hearing, and All-Seeing.
Through their lights, these truths show Islam and the necessity of submitting to Prophethood. This leads to believing that He is God, the One Whose existence is absolutely necessary, Who is One and Single. These truths form a language in which the universe announces that there is no god but God.
KNOW, O FRIEND, that the pillar of belief establishes that there is no power and strength except with God.
KNOW, O FRIEND, that these proofs and belief in God require belief that Muhammad is His Messenger. Belief in his Messengership necessarily includes the other five pillars of belief and, like a mirror, reflects God’s Attributes. Thus in the balance of belief, the belief that Muhammad is the Messenger of God is equal to the belief that there is no god but God, for Prophethood has a universal, all-encompassing position by virtue of its being the mirror for reflecting His Attributes of the Ruler and Sustainer of the universe. The relation of sainthood to Prophethood is like that of God being the Lord of the Worlds to His being the Lord of one person, like that of His Supreme Throne to a believer’s heart, or like the Prophet’s Ascension to the realms beyond all heavens to a believer’s “ascension” while in prayer.
35 For example, the Names Creator, Shaper, All-Seeing, All-Hearing, Arranger, Provider, Sustainer, All-Healing, and many others manifest themselves on the same being.
36 These qualities are explained in the Second Aim of The Twenty-ninth Word. (Tr.)
37 All human beings are unique, although they are created from and nourished with the same elements and formed of the same constituents.
38 For example, such Names as the All-Seeing, All-Hearing, All-Shaping, and All-Providing, and such Attributes as Knowledge, Will, and Power are manifested in an individual. Although each has Its own manifestation and produces Its own effects, they ultimately produce an integral entity.
39 Consider a human embryo. Beginning as a lump of flesh and bones, it somehow acquires life and consciousness. It is illogical to claim that the embryo itself, nature, or certain biological laws with nominal existence only (all of which are ignorant, unconscious, and powerless) equip it with life and consciousness. (Tr.)
40God does not always give what is asked, for it might not benefit the one who asks. Sometimes He gives what is better and sometimes He gives in the Hereafter. (Ed.)
41 By His Essence or Divine Being, He is not contained within time or space. However, through His Names’ and Attributes’ manifestations, He is everywhere and nearer to everything than itself, just as the sun places itself in your eyes’ pupils and penetrates your body through its light and heat.